1. What is the subjunctive?
Some languages have special verb forms called ‘subjunctive’, which are used especially to talk about ‘unreal’ situations: things which are possible, desirable or imaginary. Older English had subjunctives, but in modern English they have mostly been replaced by uses of should, would and other modal verbs, by special uses of past tenses, and by ordinary verb forms. English only has a few subjunctive forms left: third-person singular present verbs without -tejs, (e.g. she see, he have) and special forms of be (e.g. I be, he were). Except for II he/ she/ it were after if, they are not very common.
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