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(Xem thêm bài: Tránh lỗi “lộn lèo” – Misplaced modifier )
Có nhiều định nghĩa và cách phân loại khác nhau về misplaced và dangling modifier. Chỉ cần hiểu đâu là modifier, nó bổ nghĩa cho yếu tố nào trong câu, và đặt nó đúng chỗ là ổn.
When we begin a sentence with a modifying word, phrase, or clause, we must make sure the next thing that comes along can, in fact, be modified by that modifier. When a modifier improperly modifies something, it is called a “dangling modifier.” This often happens with beginning participial phrases, making “dangling participles” an all too common phenomenon. In the sentence below, we can’t have a car changing its own oil.
|Confusion||Changing the oil every 3,000 miles, the car seemed to run better.|
|Repair Work||Changing the oil every 3,000 miles, Fred found he could get much better gas mileage.|
A participial phrase followed by an Expletive Construction will often be a dangling participle — but the expletive construction is probably not a good idea anyway. This faulty sentence can be remedied by changing the participial phrase into a full-fledged clause with a subject and verb.
|Confusion||Changing the oil every 3,000 miles, there is an easy way to keep your car running smoothly.|
|Repair Work||If we change the oil every 3,000 miles, we can keep our car running smoothly.|
A participial phrase followed by a Passive Verb is also apt to be a dangler because the real actor of the sentence will be disguised.
|Confusion||Changing the oil every 3,000 miles, the car was kept in excellent condition.|
|Repair Work||Changing the oil every 3,000 miles, we kept the car in excellent condition.|
An infinitive phrase can also “dangle.” The infinitive phrase below should probably modify the person(s) who set up the exercise program.
|Confusion||To keep the young recruits interested in getting in shape, an exercise program was set up for the summer months.|
|Repair Work||To keep the young recruits interested in getting in shape, the coaching staff set up an exercise program for the summer months.|
Xem thêm bài này:
Dangling Modifiers and How To Correct Them
A dangling modifier is a word or phrase that modifies a word not clearly stated in the sentence. A modifier describes, clarifies, or gives more detail about a concept.
Having finished the assignment, Jill turned on the TV.
“Having finished” states an action but does not name the doer of that action. In English sentences, the doer must be the subject of the main clause that follows. In this sentence, it is Jill. She seems logically to be the one doing the action (“having finished”), and this sentence therefore does not have a dangling modifier.
The following sentence has an incorrect usage:
Having finished the assignment, the TV was turned on.
“Having finished” is a participle expressing action, but the doer is not the TV set (the subject of the main clause): TV sets don’t finish assignments. Since the doer of the action expressed in the participle has not been clearly stated, the participial phrase is said to be a dangling modifier.
Strategies for revising dangling modifiers:
- Name the appropriate or logical doer of the action as the subject of the main clause:
INCORRECT: Having arrived late for practice, a written excuse was needed.
Who arrived late? This sentence says that the written excuse arrived late. To revise, decide who actually arrived late. The possible revision might look like this:
REVISED: Having arrived late for practice, the team captain needed a written excuse.
The main clause now names the person (the captain) who did the action in the modifying phrase (arrived late).
- Change the phrase that dangles into a complete introductory clause by naming the doer of the action in that clause:
VAGUE: Without knowing his name, it was difficult to introduce him.
Who didn’t know his name? This sentence says that “it” didn’t know his name. To revise, decide who was trying to introduce him. The revision might look something like this:
IMPROVED: Because Maria did not know his name, it was difficult to introduce him.
The phrase is now a complete introductory clause; it does not modify any other part of the sentence, so is not considered “dangling.”
- Combine the phrase and main clause into one:
INCORRECT: To improve his results, the experiment was done again.
Who wanted to improve results? This sentence says that the experiment was trying to improve its own results. To revise, combine the phrase and the main clause into one sentence. The revision might look something like this:
REVISED: He improved his results by doing the experiment again.
More examples of dangling modifiers and their revisions:
INCORRECT: After reading the original study, the article remains unconvincing.
REVISED: After reading the original study, I find the article unconvincing.
INCORRECT: Relieved of your responsibilities at your job, your home should be a place to relax.
REVISED: Relieved of your responsibilities at your job, you should be able to relax at home.
INCORRECT: The experiment was a failure, not having studied the lab manual carefully.
REVISED: They failed the experiment, not having studied the lab manual carefully.